Becoming Mentally Tough

Article written in The Sword Magazine for July 2015 edition by Jon Rhodes.

Everyone wants to be mentally tough, in exams, job interviews, and in this focus, sport. When working with coaches, some often inform me that certain children are naturally mentally tough, that they have a gift to withstand huge amounts of pressure, whilst others are regarded as mentally weak.

Researchers (Jones, et al., 2002) have defined mental toughness as; having a natural or developed psychological edge that enables you to, generally, cope better than your opponents with the many demands (competition, training, lifestyle) that sport places on a performer and, specifically, be more consistent and better than your opponents in remaining determined, focused, confident, and in control of pressure.

I must immediately point out (and going against – half of – the definition) that mental toughness is a completely trained attribution. No child is born mentally tough, but will develop the traits that contribute towards their level of toughness as time goes on. Therefore, everyone is mentally tough, but the level of toughness in certain circumstances changes depending on experience.

Considering people who like to debate genetics playing a vital role, genetics can contribute towards an accelerated learning process, meaning that some children may seem advanced for their age. But again, this is all dependent on having the right experience. So, what is the right experience and if mental toughness can be trained, how is it achieved? In answering the question there are two important areas that build a mentally tough athlete; mindset, and mental skills.

The mindset research has been driven by Carol Dweck since 2012; with her work focusing on a learning paradigm identi ed as growth and xed mindsets. A fixed mindset
is identified by a belief that attributions, such as intelligence or personality, are static and cannot be changed. Furthermore, when a task becomes difficult the individual will give up easily, takes the easier option, sees effort as fruitless, ignores criticism and is threatened by others success. This leads to individuals plateauing early and not maximizing potential. The flip side is the growth mindset, whereby the individual looks forward to a challenge, is persistent when faced with obstacles, learns from criticism and others success, and as a result increases their effort, enabling potential to be reached. The individuals’ mindset is key in developing talent, and creating a mentally tough athlete.

From a young age there are several key influencers that develop a belief structure for children, such as parents, family, peers, teachers, coaches and the media. A wrong reinforced message creates a wrong belief, which can stick with the athlete for a considerable time. Mindset is ultimately the way individuals perceive failure. Does the individual learn from failure, consequently enhancing effort, or does the failure prevent future behaviour, thus inhibiting effort? Dweck has found that mentally tough individuals are focused on goal completion rather than the performance result, and exhibit higher growth mindset attributions. Essentially, goals must be challenging but realistically achievable for the athlete to see progress, seeing failure as a stepping-stone to success.

Mental Skills are the interventions, or coping strategies, that the individual has to manage emotions and perceptions. Initially, goal setting is the most fundamental way
of increasing motivation and managing the task at hand. Mental skills such as imagery, motivational cues, self-talk, and meditation are becoming increasingly used in fencing with elite athletes. However, the specific methodological protocols for using mental skills (to have significant impact) in fencing needs rigorous testing (and review) and must initially be administered by a psychologist. Goal setting on the other hand can be completed weekly by the coach, which covers areas of technical, tactical, physical and psychological development.

In a recent study at Plymouth University with athletes from Truro Fencing Club, findings revealed that there was a linear progression between tactical and psychological development. Therefore, athletes believed that by “controlling distance” and “predicting opponent attacks”; psychological attributions such as confidence, controlling pressure and mental toughness increased. Not surprisingly, knowing what to do and when to do it impacts mental toughness as it focuses on the goal and immediate task, not the result.

Becoming mentally tough can be accelerated through a series of ways outside of goal setting and I thought it beneficial to mention two manageable ways for coaches to implement alongside goals. Firstly, in every sport I have worked in, be it fencing, tennis, judo, rugby or football, a key is to have a structured mentoring programme where cadets learn from juniors, and juniors learn from seniors (and seniors learn from vets!). Role models play an important part in the way beliefs are structured, how we learn from others’ experience, and evolve the club culture. Secondly, use the power of “yet”. Numerous times I have heard a coach inform the student that they do “not have good/ correct distance”. The student hears this as a static skill and minimal effort is applied. If the student hears “you do not have good/correct distance, yet”, the skill is now based around dynamic learning, which is improved through the application of effort.

Finally, goals can be a mixture of physical developments such as agility, and tactical areas such as the use of feints. Importantly, the athlete needs to have a tangible goal to measure progress otherwise there is no clear way of ascertaining goal completion. Measuring agility (for example) is simple, as circuits are timed before and after an intervention to establish if the training has had an impact. A straightforward way to measure functional mental toughness is to list the components of mental toughness, such as confidence in attack/defense, determination to complete goals, focus within hits, and controlling emotions when under pressure. The athlete rates each component out of 10 before the intervention (where 1 = do not agree and 10 = completely agree) and again a week after the intervention. The difference in scores would reveal if the coaching experience has been successful and the athletes belief in their individual ability. Furthermore, there should be an observable difference within the fencer.

As coaches it is our job to solve problems, innovate and challenge our athletes. Ultimately, it is the coach and parents who drive the passion and mindset of the student and although it is often a tricky and arduous job, it is vital in nurturing resilience, confidence and mental toughness in athletes who could be our future Olympians.


Dweck, C. S. (2012). Mindset: how you can ful ll your potential. Ballintine, NY:USA.

Jones, G., Hanton, S., & Connaughton, D. (2002). What is this thing called mental toughness? An investigation of elite sport performers. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 205–218.

Continue reading “Becoming Mentally Tough”


Plymouth Studio School recruits top teaching team

Picture by JOHN ALLEN
Picture by JOHN ALLEN

PLYMOUTH Studio School – a new sports school opening in September – has recruited top sports performance coach and psychologist Jon Rhodes to join Katherine Endacott and Steve Mooney on their teaching team. Rhodes is currently working with British and Brazilian fencing athletes ahead of the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio and has coached top GB athletes in a wide range of sports including rugby and judo. He began his career working with the GB Olympic team at Roehampton in 2008 and is currently an associate lecturer in psychology at Plymouth University.

Read more here


Medical and Science: Warm Up for Fencing

Warm upBy Lindsay Bottoms (Exercise Physiologist) and Jonathan Rhodes (Sports Performance Consultant). Written for The Sword: British Fencing Magazine, April 2015. 

As sports people we have all been told we should warm up prior to taking part in sport, be it training or competition, to reduce the likelihood of injury and prevent the dreaded delayed onset of muscle soreness, often felt in the 72 hours following exercise. The most common warm up, especially in fencing (from our experience), is a 3 phase one, which includes a cardiovascular element (such as running), static stretching and a task specific element such as pairs work in fencing. This style of warm up has been passed on from coach to coach for many years and no one used to question why we did it. However, in the last decade researchers have begun to question whether this is the best way to prepare the body for performing sport. Research now shows that static stretching (and foam rollering) prior to exercise can impact negatively on performance as a result of decreasing muscle strength and power, which in turn reduces jump height and speed. In a sport such as fencing this can have a significant impact on performance as explosive power is a critical component. Static stretching has also been shown to have no impact on reducing the incidence of injuries during training and competition. Therefore, we should avoid performing static stretching prior to fencing. This does not mean there is no place for static stretching, it is still important as part of a cool down to increase flexibility which will ultimately have a positive impact on performance. But static stretches should remain after exercise and not before.

In recent years many coaches have started to recommend performing dynamic stretches as an alternative to static stretching. Dynamic stretching involves more controlled movement through the active range of motion for a joint, and incorporates callisthenics movements (e.g. lunging) and running drills that include forward, lateral and change of direction movements. Research shows that dynamic stretching has positive effects on power, sprint and jump performance. Therefore, dynamic stretching would be more beneficial to add to a fencing warm up than static stretching.

Further developments into research regarding warm ups shows that a sport specific warm up is more effective than both dynamic and static stretching. Instead of having a 3 phase warm up, a 2 phase warm up would be more beneficial such that you perform the cardiovascular warm up and then undertake a fencing specific activity. I know many individuals who do fencing do not like running, therefore a cardiovascular activity could just be performing fencing footwork at a light intensity forwards and backwards across a sports hall, then gradually increase the intensity of the footwork. Following this undertake a warm up fight with another fencer. This will be the most appropriate warm up for fencing and it will put you in the right mind set for fencing. We must not forget that there is a large cognitive element to fencing and therefore before training and competition we want to make sure we are alert and going to react to our opponent. Therefore, there is no better warm up than doing fencing specific movements to prepare you for high powered, fast, and agile movements on the piste. This is not to say do not stretch, but stretch for the movements you are about to perform. This means the body is sufficiently warm and you are less likely to get injuries.

With this two-tiered warm up, it is easier to think of the warm up as “kit off” and “kit on”. Functional movements to prepare you for fencing, followed by “kit on” and fencing to warm up. To start with it is wise to talk to your sparring partner and warm up your hand and legs by telling them that you are going to perform step lunges. That way you can find your distance and timing in a safe tempo. After you have both hit a few times it is then time to fence to win. This part of the warm up is key, as you should fence at 100% intensity and focus. This completes the physical and mental warm up, and increases the work-rate in the first poule fight whilst minimising the injuries throughout.


‘Psychology on the Limit’: Sports Psychology in Motor Sport

subaru_wrx_sti_rally_jump_wallpaperTravelling at over one hundred miles per hour, Sport Psychologist and co-driver Rupert Barker, and his driver David, hit a big crest, launching their rally car into the air. As the car lands it skids from right to left and right again, with David struggling to regain control … but the harder David tries to correct the skid, the worse it becomes, veering from one side of the course to the other, with ditches and trees inviting damaging and dangerous contact. Continue reading “‘Psychology on the Limit’: Sports Psychology in Motor Sport”


Lessons from London 2012 and their application to Rio 2016

As a self-employed sports consultant, I was overwhelmed when three of the athletes I work with were selected for the London 2012 Olympic Games. Working in a minority sport, I knew there would not be scope for me to attend to every step of the way; but like all good sports consultants, I was committed to doing the best I could to ensure these athletes performed at their peak when required. This paper follows my journey as performance coach with one Olympic athlete and the National coach, reviewing practice along the way through interviews, conferences, research, journal entries and the social media. It has led me to what some will see as a surprising conclusion; namely, that most sports science is not used in a functional way. Although my analysis is qualitative, I hope this account of what I did or observed will help us to rethink strategies going forward to Rio 2016.

Download the full article here


A Brief Guide to Mental Toughness

Vladimir Rys

I have been working in Talent Identification and Development for a number of years and one common question coaches often ask me is: How do I develop my athletes Mental Toughness?

Let us start by considering what mental toughness is:

Having the natural or developed psychological edge that enables you to, generally, cope better than your opponents with the many demands (competition, training, lifestyle) that sport places on a performer and, specifically, be more consistent and better than your opponents in remaining determined, focused, confident, and in control under pressure. (Jones et al, 2002.)

With other researchers clinging to this definition so tightly (Thelwell, Weston & Greenlees, 2005), it is worth considering if talent is really “natural” or learnt. Of course it is both; a Universal capacity to develop mental toughness when presented with the right training scenarios. In academia, it is very well stating what something should be like, but on the front-line of sport, us – coaches have to make the most out of the athletes we are given, whether we recognise an element of Mental Toughness or not. Mental toughness is therefore “the way an individual performs under pressure”. This definition allows for positive or negative behaviours due to pressure, which can then be interoperated as – the individual does (or does not) perform well under pressure. Continue reading “A Brief Guide to Mental Toughness”